• Herbert Schmidt


Aktualisiert: 13. Apr 2020

Klicke hier für die deutsche Version.

If you want to know what the key factors are to shape your body composition sustainably according to your goals and to make losing weight easier, then you should read this article!

One thing I would like to emphasize right at the beginning, it is not only the energy balance alone that counts, but also the quality of the food.

Be sure to buy food that comes from the region. With the meat products the animals should have been kept species-appropriately, this affects naturally enormously on the quality of the meat. The same is to be considered with fruit and vegetables, this should be likewise as little loaded as possible.

Under these conditions, the food will also contain the very important vitamins, minerals and trace elements in sufficient quantity and quality that the body needs for optimal "functioning".

"Spend money on real foods, NOT on supplements and protein powders!" 

When it comes to reducing the fat and building up some muscles, it is not easy to just train.

Your diet plays a crucial role in your progress.

If you would compare your body to a car, then the training (which makes you more efficient with the appropriate regeneration and adaptation) would be your accelerator pedal and the nutrition your brake.

How long would you go full throttle with your foot on the brake? Not very long presumably, you would quickly "overheat".


  • Eat according to your goals and possibilities, then you will see how easy it is to burn fat and build muscles.

  • If you eat the wrong food, you will think you are genetically bad or it is just very heavy and complicated.

Unfortunately, in the mainstream media and social media a lot of half-knowledge is spread and a lot of money is earned with new "diets" again and again. This at the expense of the "test persons".

In this article I would like to explain the basics of nutrition to you, so that you are no longer dependent on such "miracle diets" in the future.

Can you imagine to get your dream body lastingly.....

  • without compromising nutrition,

  • with no scheduled mealtimes,

  • without low-carb nutrition,

  • and without starving.

This is really possible and also not complicated, you will learn the basics in this article!


I want to start with the topic of counting calories, because the most important component is the energy balance. It is the energy balance that determines whether you gain weight or lose weight.

How much of the weight you lose or gain is fat or muscle depends on several factors, but I will discuss these in more detail later in this article.

When it comes to body composition, the aim should be to lose as little muscle mass as possible, or even to build up muscle mass and lose excess fat. The goals and ideals can be very different here, but the principle always remains the same.

Therefore I can recommend from experience everyone, especially the beginners into this topic, only to count the calories taken up over the food and to receive so at the end of the day the total calories taken up.

This "counting calories" is facilitated by many different free or paid "apps" (e.g.: YAZIO) and takes very little time.

With the help of these "apps" one receives the total calories and macronutrient distribution according to the individual objective (What macronutrients are and why they are also very important, follows later in the article).


But what do I do with the calculated total calorie quantity or how high should it be for me?

This brings us to the next decisive point, how much energy my body consumes can never be determined exactly and will always be an approximation to reality, because simply too many factors play a role.

But there is a very good approximation which can be determined with the formulas below, this should be your starting point, starting from this value you should write down your calories for 1-2 weeks and at the end look on the scales whether you have gained or lost weight. Accordingly, you will know whether the calculation was correct or not, accordingly you will reduce the calorie intake or increase it or if you should be equally heavy, then you will know how high your current calorie consumption is. 

FORMULA - How many calories does my body consume?

Three formulas (according to Katch McArdle, Mifflin and Harris-Benedict formulas) for calculating the so-called basal metabolic rate, which is the energy your body consumes at rest (BMR), are a very good way to determine basal metabolic rate. These 3 formulas are also the basis of most calorie conversion calculators used on the Internet or in apps and which are also used in scientific literature.

FORMEL KATCH-MCARDLE (No distinction is made between man and woman):

370 + (21,6 x fat-free body mass in kg) Example: (body fat percentage was determined with Caliper fat measuring)

body weight 90kg, body fat 20% and thus 72kg fat-free KG

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) = 370 + (21.6 x 72) = 1925.2kcal

The higher the percentage of fat-free muscle mass, the higher the

basal metabolic rate and of course the total calorie consumption. Therefore, one should ideally keep the muscle mass during calorie reduction or at least lose as little as possible. This is guaranteed because the calorie deficit is not too "aggressive" (about 10-20% of the total calorie requirement) and a correspondingly high protein content of about 1.5 - 2.5 g / kg body weight.


for men: (10 x body weight)+(6,25 x size in cm)-(5 x age) + 5

for women: (10 x body weight)+(6,25 x size in cm)-(5 x age) - 161


Man body weight 90kg, 188cm,42 years

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) = (10 x 90)+(6.25 x 188)-(5 x 42) + 5 = 1870kcal

Woman body weight 80kg, 170cm,42 years

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) = (10 x 80)+(6.25 x 170)-(5 x 42) - 161 = 1491.5kcal


for men: 66,5 + (13,7 x body weight)+(5 x size in cm)-(6,8 x age)

for women: 655 + (9,6 x body weight)+(1,8 x size in cm)-(4,7 x age)


Man body weight 90kg, 188cm,42 years

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) = 66.5+(13.7x90)+(5 x 188)-(6.8 x 42) = 1953.6kcal

Woman body weight 80kg, 170cm,42 years

Basal metabolism (BMR) = 655+(9.6 x 80)+(1.8 x 170)-(4.7 x 42) = 1531.6kcal

But since you normally don't just lie in bed all day and sleep :-), this basal metabolic rate is multiplied by a factor in order to arrive at your actually required total calories, at least approximately. How high this factor is depends on your activities. For example, the factor for someone who does little to no physical exercise is 1.15.

That would mean for this person:

Total calorie requirement / per day (TDEE) = Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) x 1.15

Theoretical example:

Basal metabolic rate for this person would be about 1925kcal according to one of the above formulas, then his total calorie requirement would be 1925 x 1.15 = 2214kcal.

The averaged factors can be used as follows:

x 1.15 (little to no activity)

x 1,2 (easy activity, 1-3 hours / per week sport or similar)

x 1,4 (medium activity, 4-6 hrs / per week sport or similar)

x 1.6 (very active, 7-9 hours / per week sport or similar)

x 1.8 (extremely active, 10+ hours / per week sports or similar)

This total calorie requirement is also called TDEE (total daily energy expenditure).

If the confusion with all the formulas is now perfect, including a link where you only have to enter your data and you can individually determine where the "journey" should go.


What do you do now with the determined number 2214kcal, as in our example above?

There are three possibilities:

  1. You want to maintain your weight, then you take about the diet on average every day no more and no less than this 2214kcal to yourself.

  2. If you want to improve your figure and lose weight (preferably only from the fat pads), then you should produce a calorie deficit of 10 - 20% daily through the diet. In the example above, this would be at 20% 1771.2kcal of the TDEE (total calorie requirement), so a calorie deficit at 442.8kcal. To "lose" 1 kilogram of fat a total calorie deficit of 7000kcal is necessary. In this case this would mean that in 4 weeks, with the corresponding calorie deficit, this person will lose about 1.8 kg of pure fat in weight.

  3. You want to gain weight (ideally pure muscle mass, but in reality this is not possible), then your calorie balance must be positive, that is, you must absorb more calories than your body burns. In this case you should take in a calorie plus of about 10-20% of your TDEE (total calorie requirement) through the diet. Again, based on the above example with a plus of 20%, this person should consume an average of 2656.8kcal.



1.Too "aggressive" or too large calorie deficit If the attempt to improve the figure is made with a too "aggressive" or too large calorie deficit, i.e. more than 20% of the daily calorie requirement (often it is 50% and more), then this means PURE STRESS for the body.

Since the survival instinct is still in our genes, the body "thinks" "ATTENTION STARVATION" and slows down the metabolic processes to consume less energy and adapt to the very low calorie intake.

In addition, such an aggressive diet not only burns the fat, but also some muscles, because it needs more resources to maintain the body and is quasi luxury, which he does not want to "afford" in a famine.

Now one could think, no problem, do I just lose a little musculature what the hell, as long as I lose weight?

But the dilemma is, due to the loss of muscle mass, the basal metabolic rate of the body falls and it consumes less energy, which makes it even harder to lose weight.

Quite apart from the fact that the musculature is absolutely necessary for a healthy passive musculoskeletal system.

The problem with this type of diet is that people lose a lot of weight very quickly at the beginning (depletion of carbohydrate stores, thus also a lot of water and muscles) and feel confirmed. The very high calorie deficit is often accompanied by the provocation of malnutrition with regard to vital substances, which can also be very problematic from a health point of view. "The end of the song" is very frequent, CREATED, I lost 15kg of weight in three months (a lot of muscle mass, of course also some fat), but I can't stand this kind of diet any longer anyway, but it doesn't matter, AIM reached, weight lost! OR? And now I'm eating "normally" again. RESULT ? Due to the now very slow metabolism and the lost muscle mass, the total calorie requirement of this person is much lower than at the beginning of the diet. If this person now eats "normally" again and thus produces a relatively high calorie surplus, he will very quickly gain weight again and most of it in the form of fat. In addition, the body "thinks" now, "Ah super, famine over, now there is more to eat again! And so that I am prepared for the next famine, I put on times fat reserves! This vicious circle is popularly known as JO-JO-EFFECT!

2.Macronutrients are ignored What are macronutrients anyway?

The word macros comes from the Greek and means "big". In terms of quantity they make up the largest part of the diet.

These are proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

(Heat) - Energy that is released when burning: 1 Gramm protein = ca. 4kcal 1 Gramm carbohydrat = ca. 4kcal 1 Gramm fat = ca. 9kcal The body needs these three macronutrients for the so-called building metabolism (building of bones, skin, connective tissue, tendons, etc.) and for the energy metabolism (mainly carbohydrates and fats).

I do not want to go into much more detail at this point, but these three nutrients should be supplied in sufficient form to give the body the opportunity to function optimally.

If one of these nutrients becomes "scarce", the body can still function, but not optimally. In order to improve one's figure (lose weight) by losing mainly fat mass and little to no muscle mass, it is absolutely necessary, besides the not too aggressive calorie deficit, also to make sure that one takes in enough "building material" i.e. protein through the diet, which is very important for the maintenance of muscle mass.

Enough, this is discussed very controversially and there are certainly individual differences, but basically one can say between 1.5 - 2 grams /kg body weight protein should be. As far as the percentage composition of the other two nutrients, carbohydrates and fats is concerned, for most people a "high-carb, high protein, low-fat" is the optimal macro nutrient distribution.

Of course, this can vary from person to person. The following three macronutrient distributions are suitable:

moderate: 30% protein / 35% fat / 35% carbohydrates

high KH: 30% protein / 20% fat / 50% carbohydrates

low KH: 40% protein / 40% fat / 20% carbohydrates

3.Supplements and new "miracle diets" again and again To put it in a nutshell, a balanced, species-appropriate diet that takes into account the individual calorie balance required and individual, intelligent physical activity adapted to the goal.

Concerning the training for a figure improvement, I will shortly write my own article, because otherwise this would go beyond the scope here! :-)

#Kalorienbilanz #Fettverbrennung #KetogeneDiät #Diät #Molkeprotein #WheyProtein

Note: All my recommendations or blog content are carefully considered and reviewed and are intended for healthy adults over the age of 18. None of my articles can be a substitute for competent medical advice. Please consult a physician before starting any exercise, nutrition or dietary supplement program. Especially if you have had any medical problems in the past. By clicking on links to products I recommend, you are helping to keep this blog alive. Some links are so-called referral links. You do not pay anything extra. But if you buy something, I get a commission. I only recommend products that I myself use, love and am convinced of.

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